- Korean J Vet Res 2019, 59(2), 55-58.
Computed tomographic anatomy of hepatic artery in normal beagle dogs
- Soochan Kim, Seongmok Jeong, Heechun Lee, Youngwon Lee, Hojung Choi
- This study was performed to examine the visualization and anatomical variants of the hepatic artery with dual-phase computed tomography (CT) angiography and three-dimensional volume rendering imaging analysis in clinically normal dogs. Seven healthy beagle dogs were enrolled and underwent dual CT angiography. Arterial phase images could be obtained with multi-detector CT angiography using the fixed-scan method in these dogs. Contrast enhancement of the hepatic parenchyma was quite minimal because of the unique blood supply system of the liver. In most dogs, the main hepatic arterial branches were the right lateral branch, left branch, and right medial branch. Although hepatic arterial variation appears to be common in dogs, only one dog in this study had the caudate lobar branch as the first branch of the hepatic artery. Further study on a larger number of dogs with CT images will be needed to identify and classify the pattern of hepatic arterial variations.
- Korean J Vet Res 2019, 59(2), 59-67.
Beta-carotene prevents the spermatogenic disorders induced by exogenous scrotal hyperthermia through modulations of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and androgen biosynthesis in mice
- Jung-Min Yon, Jae Seung Kim, Chunmei Lin, Seul Gi Park, Lee Wha Gwon, Jong-Geol Lee, In-Jeoung Baek, Sang-Seop Nahm, Sang-Yoon Nam
- We investigated whether β-carotene (β-CA) or ellagic acid (EA), originating from various fruits and vegetables, has a preventive effect against male infertility induced by exogenous scrotal hyperthermia. ICR adult mice were intraperitoneally treated with 10 mg/kg of β-CA or EA daily for 13 days consecutively. During this time, mice were subjected to transient scrotal heat stress in a water bath at 43oC for 20 min on day 7, and their testes and blood were obtained on day 14 for histopathologic and biochemical analyses. Heat stress induced significant testicular weight reduction, germ cell loss and degeneration, as well as abnormal localization of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in spermatogenic and Leydig cells. Heat stress also altered the levels of oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, SOD activity, and PHGPx, MnSOD, and HIF-1α mRNAs), apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-xL, caspase 3, NF-κB, and TGF-β1 mRNAs), and androgen biosynthesis (serological testosterone concentration and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase mRNA) in testes. These changes were all improved significantly by β-CA treatment, but only slightly improved by EA treatment. These findings indicate that β-CA, through modulations of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and androgen biosynthesis, is a potent preventive agent against testicular injuries induced by scrotal hyperthermia.
- Korean J Vet Res 2019, 59(2), 69-74.
Molecular characterization of Plasmodium juxtanucleare in Thai native fowls based on partial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene
- Tawatchai Pohuang, Sucheeva Junnu
- Avian malaria is one of the most important general blood parasites of poultry in Southeast Asia. Plasmodium (P.) juxtanucleare causes avian malaria in wild and domestic fowl. This study aimed to identify and characterize the Plasmodium species infecting in Thai native fowl. Blood samples were collected for microscopic examination, followed by detection of the Plasmodium cox I gene by using PCR. Five of the 10 sampled fowl had the desired 588 base pair amplicons. Sequence analysis of the five amplicons indicated that the nucleotide and amino acid sequences were homologous to each other and were closely related (100% identity) to a P. juxtanucleare strain isolated in Japan (AB250415). Furthermore, the phylogenetic tree of the cox I gene showed that the P. juxtanucleare in this study were grouped together and clustered with the Japan strain. The presence of P. juxtanucleare described in this study is the first report of P. juxtanucleare in the Thai native fowl of Thailand.
- Korean J Vet Res 2019, 59(2), 75-80.
Modulatory action of enrofloxacin in lipopolysaccharide-induced hyper-activated mouse spleen cells
- Hyeong-Ju Ko, Hong-Gu Joo
- Enrofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, is a broad-spectrum antibiotic widely used in veterinary medicine that inhibits the action of bacterial DNA gyrase, resulting in anti-bacterial effects. This study was performed to examine whether enrofloxacin has modulatory and anti-inflammatory activity on immune cells. A few studies have reported the anti-inflammatory effects of enrofloxacin. In this study, we used mouse spleen cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and examined the effects of enrofloxacin. Several assays were performed in LPS-treated spleen cells after the enrofloxacin treatment. Enrofloxacin inhibited the metabolic activity and mitochondrial membrane potential of LPS-treated spleen cells significantly. On the other hand, enrofloxacin did not alter the proportion of the subsets in spleen cells, and did not induce cell death. The production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in LPS-treated spleen cells was inhibited by enrofloxacin. Overall, enrofloxacin had modulatory activity in spleen cells treated with LPS. These data may broaden the use of enrofloxacin as an antibiotic with anti-inflammatory activity in veterinary clinics.
- Korean J Vet Res 2019, 59(2), 81-88.
Various macromolecules in in vitro growth medium influence growth, maturation, and parthenogenetic development of pig oocytes derived from small antral follicles
- Hanna Lee, Yongjin Lee, Joohyeong Lee, Geun-Shik Lee, Seung Tae Lee, Eunsong Lee
- This study was performed to examine the effects of various macromolecules in in vitro growth (IVG) media on the growth, maturation, and parthenogenesis (PA) of pig oocytes derived from small antral follicles (SAF). Immature oocytes were cultured for two days in IVG medium supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum (FBS), 10% (v/v) pig follicular fluid (PFF), 0.4% (w/v) bovine serum albumin (BSA), or 0.1% (w/v) polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and then maintained for 44 h for maturation. After IVG, the mean diameters of the SAF treated with FBS, PVA, and no IVG-MAF (113.0–114.8 μm) were significantly larger than that of no IVG-SAF (111.8 μm). The proportion of metaphase II oocytes was higher in PFF (73.6%) than in BSA (43.5%) and PVA (53.7%) but similar to that in the FBS treatment (61.5%). FBS and PFF increased cumulus expansion significantly compared to PVA and BSA while the intraoocyte glutathione content was not influenced by the macromolecules. Blastocyst formation of PA oocytes treated with FBS (51.8%), PFF (50.4%), and PVA (45.2%) was significantly higher than that of the BSA-treated oocytes (20.6%). These results show that the PFF and FBS treatments during IVG improved the growth, maturation, and embryonic development of SAF.
- Korean J Vet Res 2019, 59(2), 89-96.
Prevalence and molecular characterization of novel recombinant enterovirus G isolates in Jeju Province of South Korea
- Ji Hyun Jeon, Changhee Lee
- Enterovirus species G (EV-G) is highly diverse, and is ubiquitous in pig populations, usually without diarrhea. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of novel EV-G recombinants with the torovirus papain-like cysteine protease (PLCP) in Jeju pig herds. EV-G1-PLCP mono-infections were most prevalent in diarrheic weaned piglets. The PLCP genes of the Jeju isolates varied in size and junction sequences, and were greatly heterogeneous, with 77.0–90.7% homology amongst all recombinants. Our results suggest that the exogenous PLCP gene has undergone continuous rapid mutation in the individual EV-G genomes following crossorder recombination, thereby causing clinical disease in swine.
- Korean J Vet Res 2019, 59(2), 97-100.
Development of a smartphone application for providing disinfectant information on livestock industry
- Hansung Chung, Su kwon Kim, Kwanghoon Choi, Ji Heon Park, Swe Lynn Htet, Nonghoon Choe
- It is important to select the correct disinfectants and to use them appropriately in order to prevent the initial spread of highly infectious livestock disease, such as foot-and-mouth disease or highly pathogenic avian influenza. This study describes a smartphone application developed to enable livestock workers to observe information related to disinfectants for the prevention of livestock disease in the domestic market, regardless of time and location, through a Linux-based Android mobile platform. This application (Konkuk-Disinfectant Information Database) provides information on disinfectant names, components, license and use; it was designed to enable the user to share disinfectant information through social media.
- Korean J Vet Res 2019, 59(2), 101-104.
Establishment of optimal disinfection condition of weak acid hypochlorous solution for prevention of avian influenza and foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission
- Jin-Yoon Kim, Dong-Sik Yun, Haw-Yong Lee, Woo-Seog Jeong, Seung-Chun Park
- This study examined the disinfection conditions (exposure time, 0–30 min; exposure temperature, 4oC–65oC) of hypochlorous acid water (HOCl) in automobile disinfection equipment. The study tested poliovirus type 1 (PV1), low pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV, H9N2), and foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV, O type). As a result, the PV1 and FMD viruses were inactivated easily (virus titer 4 log value) by HOCl (> 100 ppm) but the AIV required higher exposure temperatures (> 55oC). In conclusion, the exposure temperature and time are important factors in deactivating AIV and FMDV.
- Korean J Vet Res 2019, 59(2), 105-108.
Remnant parietal serosa detection in a cat with true diaphragmatic hernia using computed tomography
- Sang-Kwon Lee, Wooram Jeong, Jihye Choi
- A 4-year-old cat was referred for a suspected pulmonary mass. True diaphragmatic hernia presence was diagnosed via computed tomography (CT). There was a thin membrane covering the diaphragmatic defect. The membrane was thinner than the diaphragm. After contrast injection, the membrane was less enhanced than that of the normal diaphragm. The membrane was identified as a remnant of the parietal pleura. In addition, contrast-enhanced CT images provided clarity in viewing the herniated liver and falciform fat. A thinner membrane, covering the diaphragmatic defect, and attached to the thicker normal diaphragm, is considered a unique CT feature of true diaphragmatic hernia.
- Korean J Vet Res 2019, 59(2), 109-111.
Goniodysgenesis-associated glaucoma in a Jindo dog
- Manbok Jeong, Kristina Narfström
- A 10-year-old intact female Jindo dog was presented with a 1-week history of conjunctival redness and ocular discharge in the left eye. There was an absence of menace response, dazzle reflex, and direct pupillary light reflex. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy revealed corneal edema, ciliary flush, and aqueous flare. Intraocular pressure was 68 mmHg. Based on the information available, a diagnosis of glaucoma and uveitis was made. Subsequent histopathologic examination showed the glaucoma was produced by the effects of goniodysgenesis, posterior synechia, and pigment dispersion in the trabecular meshwork. This is the first report of primary glaucoma caused by goniodysgenesis in Jindo dogs.
- Korean J Vet Res 2019, 59(2), 113-117.
Long-term follow-up of optic neuritis associated with meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology in a Maltese dog
- Sun-Jun Jung, Jury Kim, Caryn E Plummer, Ki-Chang Lee, Min-Su Kim
- A 6-year-old intact male Maltese dog presented with a history of blindness and ataxia. Neuro-ophthalmic examination revealed dilated pupils with absent pupillary light reflexes and menace response in both eyes. Mild peripapillary edema was noted in the fundus of the right eye. After magnetic resonance imaging, the dog was provisionally diagnosed with meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology. Follow-up funduscopy was performed to monitor the condition of the optic discs for three years. Despite of the treatment with prednisolone, the optic nerve progressed to atrophy and the dog couldn’t restore vision.