- Korean J Vet Res 2019, 59(1), 1-8.
Identification of predictive biomarkers of peri- and postpartum disorders in dairy cows
- Jae-Kwan Jeong, Tai-Young Hur, Young-Hun Jung, Hyun-Gu Kang, Ill-Hwa Kim
- We aimed to identify predictive markers of peri- and postpartum disorders in dairy cows. Data regarding peri- and postpartum disorders, serum metabolites, body condition score (BCS), and rectal temperature, were collected from 227 dairy cows, which were allocated to healthy (n = 57) and diseased (n = 170) groups. Serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration was higher in diseased than healthy cows 4 weeks before (p < 0.01) and immediately after (p = 0.05) calving. Serum alanine aminotransferase (AST) activity was higher (p < 0.05) in diseased than healthy cows 1 and 2 weeks after calving, whereas total cholesterol (TCH) concentration was lower (p < 0.05–0.0001) in diseased cows 4 weeks before, and after calving. BCS was higher (p < 0.05) in diseased than healthy cows 4 weeks before calving, but lower (p < 0.01) in diseased cows 8 weeks after calving. Rectal temperature was higher (p < 0.05–0.01) in diseased than healthy cows between 2 and 14 days postpartum. In conclusion, high serum NEFA and AST concentrations and lower TCH concentration during the peripartum period, and high prepartum BCS and postpartum rectal temperature, could be used as biomarkers to predict the subsequent development of peri- and postpartum disorders.
- Korean J Vet Res 2019, 59(1), 9-15.
Serum concentrations of α2-macroglobulin, α1-antitrypsin, and C-reactive protein in dogs with suspected acute pancreatitis
- Soyoung Park, Hakhyun Kim, Ji-Houn Kang, Byeong-Teck Kang, Mhan-Pyo Yang
- In canine acute pancreatitis (AP), inappropriate release and activation of zymogen proteases within the pancreas results in the consumption of serum antiproteases. The aim of this study was to examine whether the serum concentrations of α2-macroglobulin (A2MG), α1-antitrypsin (A1AT), and C-reactive protein (CRP) differ between dogs with AP and healthy dogs. Twenty healthy dogs and 20 dogs with AP were included in this study. Concentrations of A2MG, A1AT, and CRP were measured in the sera of healthy dogs and dogs diagnosed with AP. Serum A2MG and A1AT concentrations were significantly lower in dogs with AP than in healthy dogs, whereas the serum CRP concentration was significantly higher. In addition, the concentrations of A2MG and A1AT were significantly higher in AP survivors than in AP non-survivors, while the CRP concentration was significantly lower. However, in both AP survivors and non-survivors, the CRP concentrations showed a negative correlation with A2MG concentrations but not with A1AT. These findings indicate that serum antiproteases and CRP concentrations might be associated with the mortality rate of AP in dogs.
- Korean J Vet Res 2019, 59(1), 17-24.
Surgically induced degenerative changes in the femorotibial joints by total medial meniscectomy in minipigs closely resemble late-stage osteoarthritis
- Won-Jae Lee, Byung-Joon Park, Hyeon-Jeong Lee, Si-Jung Jang, Sung-Lim Lee, Jae-Hoon Lee, Gyu-Jin Rho, Seung-Joon Kim
- Animal models of osteoarthritis (OA) have played a key role in understanding the etiology of OA and in the development of new therapeutic strategies. Although pigs have an advantage as an animal disease model due to their similarity to humans, there are few studies on the induction of OA in minipigs. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize disease progression of OA in total medial meniscectomy (TMM)-operated skeletally mature minipigs, up to day 180 postoperatively. There were no significant alterations in vital signs or hematological indices throughout the observation period. However, clinical manifestations of OA in the medial femoral condyles of TMM-operated minipigs were progressive, depending on postoperative duration, with respect to osteophytes formation and roughened surfaces on radiological observation, cartilage erosion under macroscopic examination, and severe cartilage defects including fibrillation, vertical fissures, and cartilage denuding on histopathological observation, with the highest score indicating latestage OA on day 180 and without indicating apparent variation between subjects. In particular, the lateral femoral condyles were also degenerated, possibly due to localization of weight-bearing from both menisci to the lateral meniscus. Therefore, TMM in minipigs is suitable for reproducible induction of degenerative changes in the femorotibial joints that closely resemble late-stage OA, and is suitable for use in further research.
- Korean J Vet Res 2019, 59(1), 25-31.
Risk factors predicting development of complications in 72 dogs with esophageal foreign bodie
- Bohye Shin, Hakhyun Kim, Dongwoo Chang, Ji-Houn Kang, Byeong-Teck Kang, Mhan-pyo Yang
- The aim of this study was to determine predictive risk factors implicated in complications in dogs with esophageal foreign bodies. Medical records of 72 dogs diagnosed with esophageal foreign bodies by endoscopy were reviewed retrospectively. Factors analyzed included age; breed; gender; body weight, location, dimension, and type of foreign body; and duration of impaction. To identify risk factors associated with complications after foreign body ingestion, categorical variables were analyzed using the chisquare or Fisher's exact tests and multivariate analysis, as appropriate. Complications secondary to esophageal foreign body ingestion included megaesophagus, esophagitis, perforation, laceration, diverticulum, and pleuritis. Univariate analysis revealed that the location and duration of impaction after foreign body ingestion were associated with an increased risk of esophageal laceration and perforation. Multivariate analysis showed that age, duration of impaction, and foreign body dimension were significant independent risk factors associated with the development of complications in dogs with esophageal foreign bodies. In conclusion, these results showed that longer duration of impaction and larger foreign body dimensions may increase the risks of esophageal laceration, perforation, and plueritis in dogs.
- Korean J Vet Res 2019, 59(1), 33-36.
Survey of bovine norovirus infections from diarrheic calves in South Korea, 2015–2017
- Eun-Yong Lee, Hyung-Woo Kang, Ha-Young Kim, Seong-Hee Kim, Boyoun Moon, Byung Jae So, Kyoung-Ki Lee, Yeon-Hee Kim
- This study examined complex infections with various enteropathogens and the genetic diversity of bovine norovirus (BNoV) in 932 fecal samples from diarrheic calves in South Korea. Overall, seventeen (1.8%) of the samples tested positive for BNoV following RT-PCR examination. All BNoV-positive samples were co-infected with other intestinal pathogens, including bovine Rotavirus, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Escherichia coli. The genetic diversity of the BNoVs shared high nucleotide identity (98.1– 99.5%) and amino acid homology (93.5–98.1%) with genotype 2 BNoV (GIII.2) strains. In conclusion, BNoV infections with GIII genotypes were detected in complex infections of diarrheic calves in South Korea.
- Korean J Vet Res 2019, 59(1), 37-42.
First detection of a G1-like H9N2 virus in Russia, 2018
- Kirill Sharshov, Olga Kurskaya, Ivan Sobolev, Sergey Leonov, Marsel Kabilov, Alikina Tatyana, Alexander Alekseev, Anastasiya Derko, Yuriy Yushkov, Takehiko Saito, Yuko Uchida, Junki Mine, Victor Irza, Alexander Shestopalov
- Worldwide, avian influenza H9N2 viruses of different lineages are the most widespread viruses in poultry. However, to date, cases in Russia have not been documented. In this study, we report the first detection of a G1-like H9N2 virus from poultry sampled at live-bird markets in Russia (Far East region) during the winter of 2018 (isolate A/chicken/Amur_Russia/17/2018). We assume there has been further circulation of the A/chicken/Amur_Russia/17/2018 H9N2 virus in the Russian Far East with possible distribution to other regions or countries in 2018–2019.
- Korean J Vet Res 2019, 59(1), 43-45.
Conditions for the disinfectant efficacy test under subzero temperatures
- Won-Seok Chae, Wooseog Jeong, Hu-Jang Lee
- To establish appropriate conditions for a disinfectant efficacy test at subzero temperatures, this study examined mixtures of frozen foot-and-mouth disease virus or avian influenza virus solutions and disinfectant diluents at −5oC and monitored temperature and freezing status of an anti-freezing diluent (AFD, 15% ethanol + 30% propylene glycol + 55% distilled water) over time at various subzero temperatures. Viral solutions and disinfectant diluents froze before the mixtures reached −5oC, whereas the AFD was not frozen at −30oC. The times taken for the AFD to reach −10, −20, −30, and −40oC from room temperature were 36, 39, 45, and 48 min, respectively.
- Korean J Vet Res 2019, 59(1), 47-49.
A renal oncocytoma in a Maltese dog with renal cysts
- Jong-uk Kim, Jinsung Park, Gonhyung Kim, Dongwoo Chang, Byeongwoo Ahn
- A renal oncocytoma was diagnosed in an 8-year-old female Maltese dog with a history of renal cysts. Tumor cells were not detected until six months after observation of renal cysts. Nephrectomy was performed to treat the neoplasia. Tumor-like masses with numerous nodules were observed in the inner surface of cysts present in the caudal part of the left kidney. Histologically, the tumor consisted of cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. The diagnosis was based on histological features, periodic acid-Schiff reaction, and immunohistochemical cytokeratin staining. Based on a literature review, this is the first canine renal oncocytoma case reported in Korea.
- Korean J Vet Res 2019, 59(1), 51-54.
Pulmonary adenocarcinoma in a slaughtered female Hanwoo
- Hyoung-Seok Yang, Jae-Hoon Kim
- Pulmonary masses were observed in the thoracic cavity of a 9-year-old female Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) encountered at a Jeju, Korea slaughterhouse. Grossly, the thoracic cavity was filled with pulmonary masses. Histologically, the neoplastic masses were composed of many abnormal papillary structures lined by single to double columnar neoplastic cells and formed arborizing fronds supported by significant fibrovascular stroma. The neoplastic cells showed strong destructive and infiltrative growth to adjacent tissues and were strongly positive for pan-cytokeratin (CK), CK 7 and sporadically positive for CK MNF116. The masses in the female Hanwoo were diagnosed as a papillary pattern of pulmonary adenocarcinoma.